This past week, my Facebook newsfeed has been bombarded by photos, pictures, slogans and status updates all centered around the Buddhist-Muslim killings in Burma’s Arakan State. To be sure, I’ve been caught off guard by the openly racist remarks espoused by family and friends. It’s no secret that the community viewed most suspiciously by the Burmese are the Muslims, even though they’re deeply woven in the country’s social fabric (for instance, some Burmese spirits were Muslims or of Muslim descent, explaining the pork taboo). Also, I believe that Burma’s religious composition figures are inaccurate. I wouldn’t be surprised if upwards of 10% of the country are Muslims.
Considering that Arakan State is in Burma’s periphery, far from the country’s heartland, it’s not surprising that accurate news accounts have been especially hard to come by. I hate reading Burmese language media on situations like this because it is so openly intent on portraying one side of the story, just as exile media is. And English language media is no better. Different accounts have made their rounds throughout the Burmese community.
Basically, the rape and murder of a woman by 3 men (presumably Muslim) triggered the onset of the violence. (Also, I think it’s despicable that images of dead victims have been making their rounds in the Burmese community to further their case. It’s low.) Vigilantes from the Arakanese community then attacked a tour bus of (mostly) Muslim passengers from Pegu (raping and killing a woman as well. Tit for tat?). This set off intense violence in districts especially near the Burmese-Bangladeshi border, between Muslims and Buddhists. I won’t delve into the identity of Rohingyas (also called Bengali migrants by Burmese media), because it’s a complicated issue. But it’s sure stoked up the tensions in the country. There’s a comprehensive write up on New Mandala. (The comments are worth a look as well.)
Some arguments have portrayed this issue as one of immigration (illegal squatters wreaking havoc in Burma), but there’s certainly a streak of racism and Islamophobia written all over netizens’ comments. Many simply don’t distinguish race and religion. A lot of arguments defending the violence have been centered around “protecting” the indigenous womenfolk from Muslims. The rape and murder case produced tremendous backlash, even though systematic rapes and murders frequently occur in Burma’s war-ravished areas. That Burmese (and ethnic) soldiers have been documented to rape and murder ethnic women (Shan, Karen and Kachin women and girls, among others) has not been condemned in the scale we see today. The Burmese have never expressed such outrage against these war crimes. It’s obvious that a double standard exists. Indeed, last year, when a Japanese tourist was raped and murdered by a Burmese man, many Burmese blamed the victim for compromising herself (by travelling alone). Comments like these make me want to facepalm myself.
I can’t help but imagine that there’s more to the violence than what we see. Perhaps the military is taking advantage of this situation, to conjure up the idea of a Burmese state in perpetual need of a iron-fisted military presence. As the “civilian” government consolidates power, the military needs to remain relevant to survive. Some Burmese have pointed out that the Muslims in Arakan State may have been provoked by the government (maybe plainclothes vigilantes, who knows).
P.S. Some Burmese of South Asian descent protested the usage of the Burmese word kala (ကုလား) in state newspapers, on the argument that it’s a racial slur used to refer to South Asians (and perhaps its similarity to the the word “black” in some Indian languages and/or that it sounds similar to Burmese “cross over”, emphasizing South Asians’ non-native origins).
However, I think much of this is hullabaloo. Up to the 1800s, kala encompassed most Indo-European peoples west of Burma (including Europeans and South Asians), the same way Tayoke or Chinese referred to peoples north of Burma. Kala has been used in a neutral context for centuries. The fact that we Burmese still call Thais yodaya (a reference to the Ayutthaya kingdom, destroyed by the Burmese in the 1600s) makes kala seem innocuous by comparison. (Not that I’m saying the Burmese use yodaya as a slur or a reminder of the past. It’s just a descriptive word, nothing else.) Interestingly enough, in Cambodia, Kula refers to refers to Burmese settlers, particularly descendants of the Shan peoples, who settled in Pailin province to mine gems (definition from the Cambodian-English Dictionary).
There’s a pretty solid argument for the etymology of kala (“(Mis)interpretations of the Burmese word kala”), replete with references and footnotes, that essentially argues that kala comes from one of these sources:
- Pali kulaputta (ကုလပုတ္တ, noble race)
- Mon gla (ဂလာ, noble race), perhaps borrowed from Pali
- cola/chola (a historical name for the Tamil/Telegu people)
4 thoughts on “Some thoughts on Arakan State’s bloodshed”
One reason I don’t do Facebook or read Burmese blogs is the intemperate language and abuse. The news and gossip you need to take it with a big pinch of salt. I reckon this applies to all races with a few cultural and linguistic variations. An extremely emotive subject like this inevitably caused an explosion where anyone with Internet access can give vent to their frustrations and resentment. I’d be surprised if Burmese of all political hues were not united in support of the Rakhine in this issue.
It is worth reminding people of, when history is being rewritten all the time and even the term Kalar as a pejorative gaining currency in the international, media, Dr Aye Chan’s original paperThe Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar). See pp 397,401,406
I agree rape and murder happen to be commonplace in ethnic homelands committed by the army, some say even as a deliberate instrument of terror. Why the Burmese majority is silent about this despite the awareness has been they themselves have been ruled by intimidation and terror by the same army whose manifest duty is to protect them and defend the realm. They have all the guns, and even in the new permissive climate of today they still do.
Let me give you the link again to Dr Aye Chan’s paper published by the SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Autumn 2005 : http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64388.pdf
Aside from understanding the origin of the word ‘kala’, its important to understand why south Asian Burmese are offended with that word. Most of the time I have heard it used only in a derogatory context whether in public or on tv in Burma.
Used in anger any name or term can turn pejorative. All foreigners to the west were called kalar in the beginning, later tagged with hpyu (white) for Europeans. India became Eindiya to distinguish from other kalar states such as Portugal or Britain but remains the original land of kalars . Tayoke (China /Chinese) remains the same as in the official term tayoke pyithu thamada naingan (People’s Republic of China ). Incidentally Burma has always been Myanmar in formal Burmese as in Deutschland for Germany.